Language Anchor Standard 4 Level A/B

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.

Leveled Standard A
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
  3. Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking). (L.1.4)

Leveled Standard B
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
  3. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
  4. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
  5. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases. (L.2.4)

Teacher Notes

Context clues are hints that an author gives to help define a difficult or unusual word. A clue may appear within the same sentence as the word to which it refers, or it may follow in a succeeding sentence.

A root word is a basic word to which affixes (prefixes and suffixes) are added; it is called a root word because it forms the basis of a new word. The root word is also a word in its own right; for example, the word lovely consists of the root word love and the suffix -ly.

An affix is an additional element placed at the beginning or end of a root, stem, or word, or in the body of a word, to modify its meaning.

Example: look (root word), looking (add suffix, -ing), looked (add suffix -ed)

A prefix is added to the beginning of an existing word in order to create a new word with a different meaning. Examples:
happy + un- = unhappy
market + super- = supermarket

A suffix is added to the end of an existing word to create a new word with a different meaning. Examples:
child + -ish = childish
cold + -er = colder

A compound word is a combination of two or more words that function as a single unit of meaning. Examples:
play + ground = playground
note + book = notebook
At Level A, students should:

  • be able to identify suffixes, prefixes, and root words.
  • demonstrate understanding of how a prefix or suffix changes word meaning.
  • be able to use clues in a sentence to identify unknown words.

At Level B, students should:

  • be able to identify compound words and understand their meanings.
  • be able to alphabetize in preparation for using the dictionary.
  • be able to use a beginning dictionary in print or digital form to determine or clarify word meaning.

Examples / Activities
The Affix Garden

Students manipulate shapes (flower=prefix, stem=root word, suffix=leaf) to learn about affixes and create words.

opens in a new window Workforce Readiness Skills:

  1. Reading and Writing: read and write words and word parts

Context Clues: Opening Night
Students manipulate shapes (flower=prefix, stem=root word, suffix=leaf) to learn about affixes and create words.

opens in a new window Workforce Readiness Skills:

  1. Reading and Writing: read and write words and word parts

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.4.1/L.4.1 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining connotative and figurative meanings from context.

Resources
opens in a new window 5 Types of Context Clues
opens in a new window Busy Teacher: Hands On Activities for Teaching Prefixes and Suffixes by Susan Verner
opens in a new window Center for Development & Learning: Common Prefixes, Suffixes and Roots

ELA Activities for Level A / B
America’s Skilled Workers: Vocabulary
Students read opens in a new window “Filling America’s Need for Skilled Workers” Newsela article at an appropriate Lexile level and underline unknown words or new vocabulary, transitional words, and specific vocabulary words related to jobs and economics. Students then use opens in a new window Quizlet to create online vocabulary cards. Finally, students create individual resumés for Virginia job/job markets that they are interested in. Read More America’s Skilled Workers: Vocabulary
In Memory of Dr. King
Students learn about and practice making inferences; they read and/or listen to a passage about the national Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial. Read More In Memory of Dr. King
Finding the Main Idea, Getting to Work on Time
Students at A level will be introduced to finding a main idea through pictures, and students with reading levels as low as first-grade equivalent will read a passage, retell it, and determine the main idea. Extension activities include practicing time management skills, including filling out a timesheet Read More Finding the Main Idea, Getting to Work on Time
Workplace Safety Presentations
Students read and listen to texts related to workplace safety. Then, students create their own multimedia presentations synthesizing the workplace safety lessons learned. Read More Workplace Safety Presentations
Guest Speaker
Invite an informative guest speaker to class (or ask a student to speak to classmates about an area of expertise). Before the visit, have students plan the questions they will ask; during the visit, encourage students to ask follow-up questions. Read More Guest Speaker
More Activities