Language Anchor Standard 4 Level A/B

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.

Leveled Standard A
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
  3. Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g., look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking). (L.1.4)

Leveled Standard B
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
  3. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
  4. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
  5. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases. (L.2.4)

Teacher Notes

Context clues are hints that an author gives to help define a difficult or unusual word. A clue may appear within the same sentence as the word to which it refers, or it may follow in a succeeding sentence.

A root word is a basic word to which affixes (prefixes and suffixes) are added; it is called a root word because it forms the basis of a new word. The root word is also a word in its own right; for example, the word lovely consists of the root word love and the suffix -ly.

An affix is an additional element placed at the beginning or end of a root, stem, or word, or in the body of a word, to modify its meaning.

Example: look (root word), looking (add suffix, -ing), looked (add suffix -ed)

A prefix is added to the beginning of an existing word in order to create a new word with a different meaning. Examples:
happy + un- = unhappy
market + super- = supermarket

A suffix is added to the end of an existing word to create a new word with a different meaning. Examples:
child + -ish = childish
cold + -er = colder

A compound word is a combination of two or more words that function as a single unit of meaning. Examples:
play + ground = playground
note + book = notebook
At Level A, students should:

  • be able to identify suffixes, prefixes, and root words.
  • demonstrate understanding of how a prefix or suffix changes word meaning.
  • be able to use clues in a sentence to identify unknown words.

At Level B, students should:

  • be able to identify compound words and understand their meanings.
  • be able to alphabetize in preparation for using the dictionary.
  • be able to use a beginning dictionary in print or digital form to determine or clarify word meaning.

Examples / Activities
The Affix Garden

Students manipulate shapes (flower=prefix, stem=root word, suffix=leaf) to learn about affixes and create words.

opens in a new window Workforce Readiness Skills:

  1. Reading and Writing: read and write words and word parts

Context Clues: Opening Night
Students manipulate shapes (flower=prefix, stem=root word, suffix=leaf) to learn about affixes and create words.

opens in a new window Workforce Readiness Skills:

  1. Reading and Writing: read and write words and word parts

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.4.1/L.4.1 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining connotative and figurative meanings from context.

Resources
opens in a new window 5 Types of Context Clues
opens in a new window Busy Teacher: Hands On Activities for Teaching Prefixes and Suffixes by Susan Verner
opens in a new window Center for Development & Learning: Common Prefixes, Suffixes and Roots

ELA Activities for Level A / B
Conversational Fishbowl
Students choose a question (from a list such as opens in a new window this one ) to discuss in order to become more comfortable talking in a discussion format. Instructional focus should be on learners speaking one at a time and listening to respond or add to the topic. Read More Conversational Fishbowl
“How To” Speeches
Teacher models a simple “how to” speech. Then, students prepare and deliver their own speeches. Read More “How To” Speeches
Understanding the Dyslexic Mind
In Part 1, students listen to a radio interview with a dyslexic journalist and answer questions about the details. In Part 2, students listen and read along to a radio piece about successful dyslexics. Students answer questions found in the reading. In Part 3, students analyze a graph showing the divergence of IQ and reading ability in dyslexics. Read More Understanding the Dyslexic Mind
Finding the Main Idea, Getting to Work on Time
Students at A level will be introduced to finding a main idea through pictures, and students with reading levels as low as first-grade equivalent will read a passage, retell it, and determine the main idea. Extension activities include practicing time management skills, including filling out a timesheet Read More Finding the Main Idea, Getting to Work on Time
The Affix Garden
Students manipulate shapes (flower=prefix, stem=root word, suffix=leaf) to learn about affixes and create words. Read More The Affix Garden
More Activities