Speaking & Listening Anchor Standard 3 Level E

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric

Leveled Standard E

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used. (SL11-12.3)

Teacher Notes
In identifying point of view, students should consider what they know about the speaker and the speech’s implicit or explicit purpose and audience. The rhetorical triangle depicts and different types of rhetorical appeal. opens in a new window Mnemonics may be helpful in teaching students to evaluate evidence. Students should also be aware of common logical fallacies.

This standard reinforces Reading anchors 1, 2, and 6 and Writing anchors 1 and 2.

Examples / Activities
Analyzing Rhetoric in a Video

Have students work in groups to analyze the rhetorical elements of a persuasive speech. As a group, discuss how the parts work together to influence an audience.

Workforce Readiness Skills

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.4.3/L.4.3 Analyze the impact of specific words, phrases, or figurative language in text, with a focus on an author’s intent to convey information or construct an argument.
R.6.1 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose of a text.
R.6.3 Infer an author’s implicit as well as explicit purposes based on details in text.
R.6.4 Analyze how an author uses rhetorical techniques to advance his or her point of view or achieve a specific purpose (e.g., analogies, enumerations, repetition and parallelism, juxtapoisition of opposites, qualifying statements).
R.8.1 Delineate the specific steps of an argument the author puts forward, including how the argument’s claims build on one another.
R.8.2 Identify specific pieces of evidence an author uses in support of claims or conclusions.
R.8.3 Evaluate the relevance and sufficiency of evidence offered in support of a claim.
R.8.4 Distinguish claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
R.8.5 Assess whether the reasoning is valid; identify fallacious reasoning in an argument and evaluate its impact.
R.8.6 Identify an underlying premise or assumption in an argument and evaluate the logical support and evidence provided.

Resources
opens in a new window 10 Logical Fallacies You Should Know and How to Spot Them
opens in a new window American Rhetoric
opens in a new window Analyzing Famous Speeches as Arguments Lesson from ReadWriteThink
opens in a new window Fallacies and opens in a new window Evidence from opens in a new window The Writing Center at UNC-Chapel Hill
opens in a new window The History Place: Great Speeches Collection
opens in a new window Illinois Online Network: Jigsaw Activity
opens in a new window Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Fallacies
opens in a new window Logical Fallacies,
opens in a new window Logic in Writing, and opens in a new window Stance and Language from the opens in a new window Purdue OWL
opens in a new window Mnemonics for Evaluating Sources

opens in a new window Objective Summary Checklist

opens in a new window Persuasive Techniques in Advertising Lesson from opens in a new window ReadWriteThink
opens in a new window TEAL: Teach Summarization
opens in a new window Thou Shalt Not Commit Logical Fallacies
opens in a new window 10 Logical Fallacies You Should Know and How to Spot Them
opens in a new window American Rhetoric
opens in a new window Analyzing Famous Speeches as Arguments Lesson from opens in a new window ReadWriteThink
opens in a new window Fallacies and opens in a new window Evidence from opens in a new window The Writing Center at UNC-Chapel Hill
opens in a new window The History Place: Great Speeches Collection
opens in a new window Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Fallacies
opens in a new window Logical Fallacies, opens in a new window Logic in Writing, and opens in a new window Stance and Language from the opens in a new window Purdue OWL

opens in a new window Objective Summary Checklist

opens in a new window Persuasive Techniques in Advertising Lesson from opens in a new window ReadWriteThink
opens in a new window Rhetorical Situations from the Norton Field Guide to Writing
opens in a new window The Rhetorical Triangle and Three Rhetorical Appeals by David Wright
opens in a new window The VCG: The Rhetorical Triangle
opens in a new window Thou Shalt Not Commit Logical Fallacies
opens in a new window Using the Rhetorical Triangle & Rhetorical Appeals Video by David Wright

Speaking & Listening Anchor Standard 3 Level C/D

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

Leveled Standard C

Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence. (SL.5.3)

Leveled Standard D

Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. (SL.8.3)

Teacher Notes
Questioning can be conducted as a pair or group activity. One student is the “expert”–either because they have prior knowledge/experience of the topic or because they have studied background information before the task. A list of statements is given to the other student(s). These statements need to be formed into questions to ask the expert. Students should listen and write down answers.

Jigsaw activities also give students opportunities to be the expert, sharing details, and the information gatherer, forming questions.

Summarizing and paraphrasing are skills that require students to reprocess information and express it in their own words. These skills enhance student comprehension because they require active listening. A summary is an overview, in the student’s words, of the most important information from what they have heard because sometimes students get lost in the details. Instructors may want to explicitly teach step-by-step summarization strategies.

In identifying point of view, students should consider what they know about the speaker and the speech’s implicit or explicit purpose and audience. opens in a new window Mnemonics may be helpful in teaching students to evaluate evidence.

This standard reinforces Reading anchors 1, 2, and 6 and Writing anchors 1 and 2.

Examples / Activities
Summarizing Pro/Con Videos

Have students work in groups to find a persuasive speech online, use a graphic organizer to analyze the speaker’s claims, and write a summary in five sentences or less.

Workforce Readiness Skills

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.2.7 Make evidence-based generalizations or hypotheses based on details in text, including clarifications, extensions, or applications of main ideas to new situations.
R.2.2 Summarize details and ideas in text.
R.8.1 Delineate the specific steps of an argument the author puts forward, including how the argument’s claims build on one another.
R.8.2 Identify specific pieces of evidence an author uses in support of claims or conclusions.
R.8.3 Evaluate the relevance and sufficiency of evidence offered in support of a claim.
R.8.4 Distinguish claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
R.8.5 Assess whether the reasoning is valid; identify fallacious reasoning in an argument and evaluate its impact.
R.4.3/L.4.3 Analyze the impact of specific words, phrases, or figurative language in text, with a focus on an author’s intent to convey information or construct an argument.
R.6.1 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose of a text.
R.6.3 Infer an author’s implicit as well as explicit purposes based on details in text.
R.6.4 Analyze how an author uses rhetorical techniques to advance his or her point of view or achieve a specific purpose (e.g., analogies, enumerations, repetition and parallelism, juxtaposition of opposites, qualifying statements).
R.8.1 Delineate the specific steps of an argument the author puts forward, including how the argument’s claims build on one another.
R.8.2 Identify specific pieces of evidence an author uses in support of claims or conclusions.
R.8.3 Evaluate the relevance and sufficiency of evidence offered in support of a claim.
R.8.4 Distinguish claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
R.8.5 Assess whether the reasoning is valid; identify fallacious reasoning in an argument and evaluate its impact.

Resources
opens in a new window Illinois Online Network: Jigsaw Activity
opens in a new window 10 Logical Fallacies You Should Know and How to Spot Them

Speaking & Listening Anchor Standard 3 Level A/B

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

Leveled Standard A

Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood. (SL.K.3)

Leveled Standard B

Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. (SL.3.3)

Teacher Notes
Questioning can be conducted as a pair or group activity. One student is the “expert”–either because they have prior knowledge/experience of the topic or because they have studied background information before the task. A list of statements is given to the other student(s). These statements need to be formed into questions to ask the expert. Students should listen and write down answers.

Jigsaw activities also give students opportunities to be the expert, sharing details, and the information gatherer, forming questions.

Examples / Activities
Guest Speaker

Invite an informative guest speaker to class (or ask a student to speak to classmates about an area of expertise). Before the visit, have students plan the questions they will ask; during the visit, encourage students to ask follow-up questions.

Workforce Readiness Skills

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.2.7 Make evidence based generalizations or hypotheses based on details in text, including clarifications, extensions, or applications of main ideas to new situations.R.2.2 Summarize details and ideas in text.

Resources
opens in a new window Illinois Online Network: Jigsaw Activity

Writing Anchor Standard 3 Level E

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences.

Leveled Standard A
Note: Students’ narrative skills continue to grow in these levels as students work to incorporate narrative elements effectively into their arguments and informative/explanatory texts.

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
L.1.9 Edit to ensure effective use of transitional words, conjunctive adverbs, and other words and phrases that support logic and clarity.
R.2.5 Determine which detail(s) support(s) a main idea.
R.3.1 Order sequences of events in texts.
R.5.1 Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
W.3 Write clearly and demonstrate sufficient command of standard English conventions.

Writing Anchor Standard 3 Level C/D

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences.

Leveled Standard C/D
Note: Students’ narrative skills continue to grow in these levels as students work to incorporate narrative elements effectively into their arguments and informative/explanatory texts.

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
L.1.9 Edit to ensure effective use of transitional words, conjunctive adverbs, and other words and phrases that support logic and clarity.
R.2.5 Determine which detail(s) support(s) a main idea.
R.3.1 Order sequences of events in texts.
R.5.1 Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
W.3 Write clearly and demonstrate sufficient command of standard English conventions.

Writing Anchor Standard 3 Level A/B

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences.

Leveled Standard A
Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure. (W1.3)

Leveled Standard B
Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure. (W.2.3)

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
L.1.9 Edit to ensure effective use of transitional words, conjunctive adverbs, and other words and phrases that support logic and clarity.
R.2.5 Determine which detail(s) support(s) a main idea.
R.3.1 Order sequences of events in texts.
R.5.1 Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
W.3 Write clearly and demonstrate sufficient command of standard English conventions.

Reading Anchor Standard 3 Level E

Anchor Standard R3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. (Apply this standard to texts of appropriate complexity as outlines by Standard 10.)

Leveled Standard E
Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text. (RI.11-12.3)

Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them. (RH.9-10.3)

Follow precisely a complex multi step procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text. (RST.9-10.3)

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.3.1 Order sequences of events in texts.
R.3.2 Make inferences about plot/sequence of events, characters/people, settings, or ideas in texts.
R.3.3 Analyze relationships within texts, including how events are important in relation to plot or conflict; how people, ideas, or events are connected, developed, or distinguished; how events contribute to theme or relate to key ideas; or how a setting or context shapes structure and meaning.
R.3.4 Infer relationships between ideas in a text (e.g., an implicit cause and effect, parallel, or contrasting relationship).
R.3.5 Analyze the roles that details play in complex literary or informational texts.

Reading Anchor Standard 3 Level C/D

Anchor Standard R3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. (Apply this standard to texts of appropriate complexity as outlines by Standard 10.)

Leveled Standard C
Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. (RI.4.3)

Leveled Standard D
Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories). (RI.8.3)

  • Application: identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered). (RH.6-8.3)

Follow precisely a multi step procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. (RST.6-8.3)

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.3.1 Order sequences of events in texts.
R.3.3 Analyze relationships within texts, including how events are important in relation to plot or conflict; how people, ideas, or events are connected, developed, or distinguished; how events contribute to theme or relate to key ideas; or how a setting or context shapes structure and meaning.
R.3.4 Infer relationships between ideas in a text (e.g., an implicit cause and effect, parallel, or contrasting relationship).
R.3.5 Analyze the roles that details play in complex literary or informational texts.
R.4.3/L.4.3 Analyze the impact of specific words, phrases, or figurative language in text, with a focus on an author’s intent to convey information or construct an argument.
R.6.4 Analyze how an author uses rhetorical techniques to advance his or her point of view or achieve a specific purpose (e.g., analogies, enumerations, repetition and parallelism, juxtaposition of opposites, qualifying statements).

Reading Anchor Standard 3 Level A/B

Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. (Apply this standard to texts of appropriate complexity as outlines by Standard 10.)

Leveled Standard A
Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. (RI.1.3)

Leveled Standard B
Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts or steps in technical procedures in a text using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (RI.3.3)

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.3.1 Order sequences of events in texts.
R.3.3 Analyze relationships within texts, including how events are important in relation to plot or conflict; how people, ideas, or events are connected, developed, or distinguished; how events contribute to theme or relate to key ideas; or how a setting or context shapes structure and meaning.

Language Anchor Standard 3 Level E

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

Leveled Standard E

  1. N/A