Writing Anchor Standard 1 Level E

Write to support claims in analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

Leveled Standard C
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  1. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
L.1.9 Edit to ensure effective use of transitional words, conjunctive adverbs, and other words and phrases that support logic and clarity.
R.8.3 Evaluate the relevance and sufficiency of evidence offered in support of a claim.
W.1 Determine the details of what is explicitly stated and make logical inferences or valid claims that square with textual evidence.
W.2 Produce an extended analytic response in which the writer introduces the idea(s) or claim(s) clearly; creates an organization that logically sequences information; develops the idea(s) or claim(s) thoroughly with well-chosen examples, facts, or details from the text; and maintains a coherent focus.
W.3 Write clearly and demonstrate sufficient command of standard English conventions.

Writing Anchor Standard 1 Level C/D

Write to support claims in analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

Leveled Standard C
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

  1. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
  2. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  3. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. (W.5.1)

Leveled Standard D
Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

  1. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
  2. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
  4. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. (W.7.1)

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
L.1.9 Edit to ensure effective use of transitional words, conjunctive adverbs, and other words and phrases that support logic and clarity.
R.8.3 Evaluate the relevance and sufficiency of evidence offered in support of a claim.
W.1 Determine the details of what is explicitly stated and make logical inferences or valid claims that square with textual evidence.
W.2 Produce an extended analytic response in which the writer introduces the idea(s) or claim(s) clearly; creates an organization that logically sequences information; develops the idea(s) or claim(s) thoroughly with well-chosen examples, facts, or details from the text; and maintains a coherent focus.
W.3 Write clearly and demonstrate sufficient command of standard English conventions.

Writing Anchor Standard 1 Level A/B

Write to support claims in analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

Leveled Standard A
N/A

Leveled Standard B
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

  1. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
  2. Provide reasons that support the opinion.
  3. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
  4. Provide a concluding statement or section.

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
L.1.9 Edit to ensure effective use of transitional words, conjunctive adverbs, and other words and phrases that support logic and clarity.
W.2 Produce an extended analytic response in which the writer introduces the idea(s) or claim(s) clearly; creates an organization that logically sequences information; develops the idea(s) or claim(s) thoroughly with well-chosen examples, facts, or details from the text; and maintains a coherent focus.
W.3 Write clearly and demonstrate sufficient command of standard English conventions.

Reading Anchor Standard 1 Level E

Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. (Apply this standard to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Standard 10.)

Leveled Standard C
Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.I/RL.9-10.1)

  • Application: cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information. (RH.9-10.1)
  • Application: cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.(RST.9-10.1)

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.2.1 Comprehend explicit details and main ideas in text.
R.2.7 Make evidence based generalizations or hypotheses based on details in text, including clarifications, extensions, or applications of main ideas to new situations.
R.2.8 Draw conclusions or make generalizations that require synthesis of multiple main ideas in text.
R.3.4 Infer relationships between ideas in a text (e.g., an implicit cause and effect, parallel, or contrasting relationship).
R.3.5 Analyze the roles that details play in complex literary or informational texts.
R.8.2 Identify specific pieces of evidence an author uses in support of claims or conclusions.
R.8.3 Evaluate the relevance and sufficiency of evidence offered in support of a claim.
R.8.5 Assess whether the reasoning is valid; identify fallacious reasoning in an argument and evaluate its impact.

Reading Anchor Standard 1 Level C/D

Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. (Apply this standard to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Standard 10.)

Leveled Standard C
Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (RI/RL.4.1)

Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (RI/RL.5.1)

Leveled Standard D
Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (RI/RL.7.1)

  • Application: cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. (RH.6-8.1)
  • Application: cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (RST.6-8.1)

Teacher Notes

Kylene Beers (When Kids Can’t Read: What Teachers Can Do, Heinemann, 2012) identifies thirteen types of inferences skilled readers make. Types of inference:

  1. Recognize the antecedents for pronouns.
  2. Figure out the meaning of unknown words from context clues.
  3. Figure out the grammatical function of an unknown word.
  4. Understand intonation of characters’ words.
  5. Identify characters’ beliefs, personalities, and motivations.
  6. Understand characters’ relationships to one another.
  7. Provide details about the setting.
  8. Provide explanations for events or ideas that are presented in the text.
  9. Offer details for events or their own explanations of the events presented in the text.
  10. Understand the author’s view of the world.
  11. Recognize the author’s biases.
  12. Relate what is happening in the text to their own knowledge of the world.
  13. Offer conclusions from facts presented in the text.Teachers may need to provide explicit guidance, modeling, or other scaffolds to support students in developing inference and analysis skills.

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.2.1 Comprehend explicit details and main ideas in text.
R.3.4 Infer relationships between ideas in a text (e.g., an implicit cause and effect, parallel, or contrasting relationship).
R.3.5 Analyze the roles that details play in complex literary or informational texts.
R.8.2 Identify specific pieces of evidence an author uses in support of claims or conclusions.

Reading Anchor Standard 1 Level A/B

Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. (Apply this standard to texts of appropriate complexity as outlined by Standard 10.)

Leveled Standard A
Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
(RI/RL.1.1)

Leveled Standard B
Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (RI/RL.2.1)

Examples / Activities
In Memory of Dr. King

Students learn about and practice making inferences; they read and/or listen to a passage about the national Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial.

opens in a new window Workforce Readiness Skills:

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
R.2.1 Comprehend explicit details and main ideas in text.
R.3.5 Analyze the roles that details play in complex literary or informational texts.

Language Anchor Standard 1 Level E

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

Leveled Standard E

  1. Use parallel structure.
  2. Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations. (L.9-10.1)

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
L.1.6 Edit to ensure parallelism and proper subordination and coordination.
R.4.2/L.4.2 Analyze how meaning or tone is affected when one word is replaced with another.
R.4.3/L.4.3 Analyze the impact of specific words, phrases, or figurative language in text, with a focus on an author’s intent to convey information or construct an argument.
R.5.1 Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.
W.3 Write clearly and demonstrate sufficient command of standard English conventions.

Language Anchor Standard 1 Level C/D

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

Leveled Standard C
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  1. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
  2. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
  3. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
  4. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
  5. Form and use the perfect verb tenses (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked).
  6. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
  7. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
  8. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
  9. Form and use prepositional phrases.
  10. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
  11. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
  12. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their). (L.4.1 and 5.1 merge)

Leveled Standard D
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  1. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case subjective, objective, possessive).
  2. Use intensive pronouns.
  3. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
  4. Recognize and correct vague or unclear pronouns.
  5. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
  6. Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
  7. Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
  8. Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
  9. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
  10. Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
  11. Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
  12. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers. (L.6.1 through 8.1 merge)

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
L.1.1 Edit to correct errors involving frequently confused words and homonyms, including contractions (passed, past; two, too, to; there, their, they’re; knew, new; it’s its).
L.1.2 Edit to correct errors in straightforward subject-verb agreement.
L.1.3 Edit to correct errors in pronoun usage, including pronoun-antecedent agreement, unclear pronoun references, and pronoun case.
L.1.4 Edit to eliminate non-standard or informal usage (e.g., correctly use try to win the game instead of try and win the game).
L.1.5 Edit to eliminate dangling or misplaced modifiers or illogical word order (e.g., correctly use to meet almost all requirements instead of to almost meet all requirements).
L.1.6 Edit to ensure parallelism and proper subordination and coordination.
L.1.7 Edit to correct errors in subject-verb or pronoun antecedent agreement in more complicated situations (e.g., with compound subjects, interceding phrases, or collective nouns).
L.1.8 Edit to eliminate wordiness or awkward sentence construction.
L.1.9 Edit to ensure effective use of transitional words, conjunctive adverbs, and other words and phrases that support logic and clarity.
L.2.2 Edit to eliminate run-on sentences, fused sentences, or sentence fragments.
R.4.2/L.4.2 Analyze how meaning or tone is affected when one word is replaced with another.
R.4.3/L.4.3 Analyze the impact of specific words, phrases, or figurative language in text, with a focus on an author’s intent to convey information or construct an argument.
W.3 Write clearly and demonstrate sufficient command of standard English conventions.

Language Anchor Standard 1 Level A/B

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

Leveled Standard A
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  1. Print all upper- and lowercase letters.
  2. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.
  3. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).
  4. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their; anyone, everything).
  5. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I will walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).
  6. Use frequently occurring adjectives.
  7. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
  8. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or, so, because).
  9. Use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives).
  10. Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., during, beyond, toward).
  11. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
  12. Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts. (L.K.1 and 1.1 merge)

Leveled Standard B
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  1. Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
  2. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.
  3. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns.
  4. Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
  5. Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
  6. Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood).
  7. Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
  8. Form and use the simple verb tenses (e., I walked; I walk; I will walk).
  9. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun antecedent agreement.
  10. Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
  11. Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.
  12. Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences.
  13. Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy). (L.2.1 and 3.1 merge)

GED® Assessment Targets (RLA)
L.1.2 Edit to correct errors in straightforward subject-verb agreement.
L.1.3 Edit to correct errors in pronoun usage, including pronoun-antecedent agreement, unclear pronoun references, and pronoun case.
L.1.6 Edit to ensure parallelism and proper subordination and coordination.
L.1.9 Edit to ensure effective use of transitional words, conjunctive adverbs, and other words and phrases that support logic and clarity.
W.3 Write clearly and demonstrate sufficient command of standard English conventions.